《中国的核安全》白皮书(5)(中英对照)_英汉翻译素材 - 可可英语

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《中国的核安全》白皮书(5)(中英对照)

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IV. Maintaining High-Level Safety

四、保持高水平安全
China has maintained a good nuclear safety record for a long time – it ranks among the highest of all countries in terms of nuclear power safety operation indicators. Its safety level in the use of nuclear technology continues to improve, its nuclear material control is strong, and public health and environmental safety are fully guaranteed. In 2000, 2004, 2010 and 2016, the International Atomic Energy Agency conducted four comprehensive reviews of China's nuclear and radiation safety regulation, giving full recognition to China's good practices and experiences.
中国长期保持良好的核安全记录,核电安全运营指标居世界前列,核技术利用安全水平不断提升,核材料管控有力,公众健康和环境安全得到充分保障。2000年、2004年、2010年和2016年,国际原子能机构对中国开展了4次核与辐射安全监管综合评估,充分肯定中国核安全监管的良好实践和经验做法。
Safe and efficient nuclear power development. In accordance with the concept of multiple protective barriers and defense-in-depth, and with the aim of ensuring that they are completely safe and reliable, China uses the most advanced technology and the most stringent standards for the development of nuclear power, and strictly manages the entire life cycle of nuclear facilities from siting, design, construction, and operation to decommissioning. Since 1985, when the first nuclear power plant on the Chinese mainland, the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, began construction, China has adopted safe and reliable reactor technology, and learned from the experiences and lessons of major nuclear accidents abroad to make safety improvements. The safety performance of the units is better guaranteed. After more than 30 years, China has achieved independent design, construction and operational capability in nuclear power, and entered a new stage of safe and efficient development. China took the lead in the construction and operation of the GW-class pressurized water reactor, AP1000, using advanced passive safety systems, and the European advanced pressurized water reactor, EPR. The Hualong-1 nuclear reactor, a product of independent research and development, ranks among the highest in the world in terms of safety design. Construction of the demonstration project is being carried out in accordance with the highest quality standards, making the Hualong-1 a highlight of China's "going global" strategy. By June 2019, China had 47 nuclear power units in operation, ranking third in the world, and 11 nuclear power units under construction, ranking first in the world. The performance indicators of nuclear power units are generally good. By June 2019, the industry had operated safely and stably for more than 300 reactor-years, and there had been no incidents or accidents at or above Level 2 under the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). The incidence of Level 0 deviations and Level 1 anomalies had also decreased. In the comprehensive ranking of similar units of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) in recent years, operating units in China have performed above the world median for more than 80 percent of the indicators, and have reached the world advanced level for more than 70 percent of the indicators. In 2018, China led the world with 12 operating units achieving full marks in WANO composite index.
核电发展安全高效。中国坚持采用最先进的技术、最严格的标准发展核电,按照多重屏障、纵深防御的理念,严格管理核设施选址、设计、建造、运行、退役等全生命周期活动,确保稳妥可靠、万无一失。1985年,中国大陆开工建设第一座核电厂——秦山核电厂以来,核电厂建设采用安全可靠的反应堆技术,并汲取国外重大核事故的经验教训进行安全改进,机组安全性能更有保障。经过30多年发展,中国核电实现了自主设计、建造和运营,进入安全高效发展的新阶段。在全球率先建设运行百万千瓦级非能动先进压水堆(AP1000)和欧洲先进压水堆(EPR)机组。自主研发“华龙一号”核电机组,设计安全水平居世界前列,示范工程建设高质量推进,成为核电走出去的“中国名片”。截至2019年6月,中国运行核电机组47台,居世界第三;在建核电机组11台,居世界第一。核电机组性能指标总体处于良好水平,截至2019年6月,已安全稳定运行累计300余堆年,未发生过国际核与放射事件分级表(INES)2级及以上的事件或事故,且0级偏差和1级异常事件发生率呈下降趋势。在近年世界核电运营者协会(WANO)同类机组综合排名中,80%以上指标优于世界中值水平,70%以上指标达到世界先进值。2018年,12台运行机组WANO综合指数满分,世界领先。
Safe operation of other key nuclear facilities. Based on its own strength and drawing on advanced international experience, China has designed and developed research reactors such as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, fast reactors, small nuclear power reactors, molten salt reactors, and transmutation devices. Nineteen operating civil research reactors and critical assemblies maintain safe and stable operation. We have implemented the strategy of a closed nuclear fuel cycle and gradually established a complete nuclear fuel cycle system, including uranium mining and metallurgy, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, processing of nuclear fuel elements, spent fuel reprocessing, and treatment and disposal of radioactive waste. Eighteen civil nuclear fuel cycle facilities and two low- and intermediate-level radioactive solid waste disposal sites have a good safety record.
重要核设施安全运行。坚持立足自身,积极借鉴国际先进经验,研发设计高温气冷堆、快中子增殖堆、小型核动力堆、熔盐堆、嬗变装置等研究性反应堆,19座在役民用研究堆和临界装置保持安全稳定运行。实行核燃料闭式循环战略,逐步建立起包括铀矿冶、铀转化、铀浓缩、核燃料元件加工、乏燃料后处理和放射性废物处理处置等完整的核燃料循环体系,全国18座民用核燃料循环设施、2座低中水平放射性固体废物处置场保持良好安全记录。
Classification and safe disposal of radioactive waste. China implements radioactive waste classification: near-surface or medium-depth disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in locations that meet the requirements of nuclear safety, and deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in centralized locations. To ensure permanent safety, nuclear facility operating organizations and radioactive waste disposal organizations carry out minimization and decontamination of radioactive waste in accordance with the law. All provinces and equivalent administrative units have built urban radioactive waste repositories for centralized storage and proper disposal of radioactive waste produced by nuclear technology. We will continue to promote the safe storage and treatment of spent fuel, enhance our capacity in the treatment and disposal of radioactive waste, carry out the decommissioning and environmental restoration of uranium mining and metallurgical facilities, and standardize the environmental management of waste rock, waste water, tailings and slag in uranium mining and metallurgy, so as to ensure that radiation is maintained at safe levels.
放射性废物分类安全处置。推行放射性废物分类处置,低中水平放射性废物在符合核安全要求的场所实行近地表或中等深度处置,高水平放射性废物实行集中深地质处置。核设施营运单位、放射性废物处理处置单位依法对放射性废物进行减量化、无害化处理处置,确保永久安全。各省、自治区、直辖市全部建成城市放射性废物库,集中贮存并妥善处置核技术利用放射性废物。推进乏燃料安全贮存处理,加快放射性废物处理处置能力建设,持续实施已关停铀矿冶设施的退役治理和环境恢复,规范铀矿冶废石、废水、尾矿(渣)的环境管理,确保辐射环境安全。
Markedly improved safety in the use of nuclear technology. China implements dynamic management of radioactive sources from cradle to grave, and brings all source-related units into the scope of government regulation. We have established a national database for the management of nuclear technology utilization, taken measures to enhance the safety of radioactive sources, realized the real-time online monitoring of high-risk mobile sources, and improved the safety level of nuclear technology utilization. As of June 2019, 142,607 radioactive sources and 181,293 radiation-emitting devices were in use in China, and a total of 73,070 units were engaged in the production, sale and use of radioisotopes and radiation-emitting devices. One hundred percent of radioactive sources and radiation-emitting devices are subject to licensing management, and 100 percent of waste radioactive sources are safely stored. The annual incidence of radiation accidents from radioactive sources has continued to decline, from 6.2 per 10,000 sources in the 1990s to less than 1.0 per 10,000 sources at present, the lowest level in history.
核技术利用安全水平大幅提升。对放射源实行从“摇篮”到“坟墓”的全过程动态管理,将所有涉源单位纳入政府监管范围,建立国家核技术利用管理数据库,实施放射源安全提升行动,实现高风险移动源在线实时监控,提高核技术利用安全水平。截至2019年6月,中国在用放射源142607枚,各类射线装置181293台(套),从事生产、销售、使用放射性同位素和射线装置的单位共73070家,放射源和射线装置100%纳入许可管理,废旧放射源100%安全收贮。放射源辐射事故年发生率持续降低,由20世纪90年代的每万枚6.2起降至目前的每万枚1.0起以下,达到历史最低水平。
Upgraded nuclear security. China regards nuclear security as an important protective screen for nuclear safety and controls nuclear materials in accordance with the strictest standards. Nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive source security systems are in line with international standards. The rules and regulations are sound and complete, and the mechanisms for non-proliferation and nuclear terrorism prevention are improving. We are building a nuclear security system for new nuclear facilities in accordance with the latest international standards, and have invested billions of yuan in special funds to upgrade the security system of the original nuclear facilities, thus greatly strengthening our prevention capabilities. To date, there have been no incidents of theft, loss or illegal use of nuclear materials.
核安保水平持续提升。把核安保作为保障核安全的重要屏障,按照最严格标准对核材料实施管制。核电厂、核燃料循环设施和放射源安保系统符合国际标准,规章制度健全完备,防扩散、反核恐怖机制日益完善。按照国际最新标准开展新建核设施的核安保系统建设,投入数十亿元专项资金改造升级原有核设施安保系统,安全防范能力大幅加强。迄今为止,未发生核材料被盗、丢失或非法使用事件,做到了核材料“一克不丢、一件不少”。
Good radiation environment quality. The radiation environment monitoring data in China show that the radiation environment quality across the country is within the range of natural environmental radiation, and the activity concentration levels of artificial radionuclides are normal. Surveillance monitoring data show that radiation in the environment around national nuclear facilities and nuclear technology utilization projects has not changed significantly compared with the level prior to construction, and the individual public dose is far lower than the national limit. Public health and environmental safety are fully guaranteed.
辐射环境质量保持良好。中国辐射环境监测数据显示,全国范围内辐射环境质量良好,处于天然环境辐射水平范围内,人工放射性核素活度浓度未见异常。位于核设施、核技术利用项目周边的监督性监测数据显示,全国核设施、核技术利用项目周围环境辐射水平与建设前相比没有明显变化,公众个人剂量远低于国家限值,公众健康和环境安全得到充分保障。

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