《中国的核安全》白皮书(4)(中英对照)_英汉翻译素材 - 可可英语

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《中国的核安全》白皮书(4)(中英对照)

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III. Ensuring Effective Regulation of Nuclear Safety

三、实施科学有效安全监管
China treats nuclear safety as an important obligation of the state, and exercises unified regulation through special organizations and a regulatory system underpinned by independence, openness, the rule of law, rationality, and effectiveness. To ensure independent regulation of nuclear safety and enhance its authority and effectiveness, China has strengthened technical support and developed a professional team while modernizing the system and the regulatory capacity.
中国把保障核安全作为重要的国家责任,成立专门机构实施统一监管,建立独立、公开、法治、理性、有效的监管体系,加强技术保障和人才队伍建设,不断推进核安全监管体系和监管能力现代化,保障了核安全监管的独立性、权威性和有效性。
A three-pronged regulatory system. In China, unified regulation over the surveillance of nuclear safety, radiation safety, and the radiation environment is exercised independently, and a three-pronged regulatory system consisting of headquarters, regional offices and technical support organizations is in place. Established in 1984, the National Nuclear Safety Administration is responsible for the regulation of civil nuclear facilities, the formulation of nuclear safety policies, laws, regulations, standards, and plans, the implementation of nuclear safety license management, and the coordination of nuclear safety regulation across the country. To perform nuclear and radiation safety surveillance it has six regional offices in the north, east, south, southwest, northwest, and northeast of China. Professional technical support organizations such as the Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center and the Radiation Monitoring Technical Center provide technical support for nuclear safety review, independent verification, surveillance, law enforcement, and assessment of the radiation environment. Local governments at all levels regulate regional radiation safety through regulatory organizations or full-time/part-time regulators according to local conditions.
建立健全“三位一体”监管机构。实行核安全、辐射安全和辐射环境管理的统一独立监管,建立了总部机关、地区监督站、技术支持单位“三位一体”的核安全监管组织体系。1984年,中国成立国家核安全局,负责民用核设施安全监督管理,制定核安全政策、法规、标准和规划,实施核安全许可,统筹全国核安全监管工作。设置华北、华东、华南、西南、西北、东北6个地区核与辐射安全监督站,作为国家核安全局派出机构,实施区域核安全监督检查。设立核与辐射安全中心、辐射环境监测技术中心等专业技术机构,为安全审查、独立验证、监督执法、辐射环境评价等提供全方位支持。各级地方政府结合实际设立监管机构或配备专兼职监管人员,开展本地区辐射安全监管。
Comprehensive review and license management. The government has strengthened safety control of nuclear facilities, materials and activities and radioactive materials through comprehensive safety licensing and rigorous technical review. It exercises full life-cycle and phased license management over the siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and facilities that handle the treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive waste. The government implements license management over licensees that have nuclear materials, and over licensees that produce, sell and use radioisotope and radiation-emitting devices based on categories and levels of radiation. It performs approval and online monitoring over the transport of radioactive materials and implements license management over licensees that design, manufacture, install, and perform nondestructive testing of civil nuclear safety equipment, and licensees that design and manufacture containers for the transport of radioactive materials. A risk-informed and problem-oriented review system has been established, and efforts are being made to enhance the capacity of independent verification and calculations, probabilistic safety assessment, and risk assessment.
全链条实施审评许可。通过全链条安全许可和严格的技术审评,强化对核设施、核材料、核活动和放射性物质的安全管控。对核电厂、研究堆、核燃料循环设施以及放射性废物处理、贮存和处置等核设施的选址、建造、运行和退役活动,实施全生命周期的分阶段许可管理;对持有核材料的单位,实施核材料许可管理;对放射性同位素和射线装置生产、销售和使用单位,实施分级分类辐射安全许可管理;对放射性物品运输活动,实施运输审批和在线监控;对民用核安全设备设计、制造、安装、无损检验单位和放射性物品运输容器设计、制造单位,实施许可管理。建立实施以风险为指引、以问题为导向的审评方法体系,持续提升独立验证和校核计算、概率安全分析和风险评估能力。
Whole-process surveillance and law enforcement. The government performs rigorous surveillance of nuclear facilities and units that are engaged in nuclear activities in accordance with the law, to ensure compliance with nuclear safety laws, regulations, standards, and licensing requirements. It carries out regular surveillance of units that operate nuclear facilities, manufacture nuclear safety equipment, and utilize nuclear technologies, covering all matters and activities in relation to nuclear safety such as design, purchasing, manufacturing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. The government performs on-site safety surveillance of key nuclear facilities and activities, urges enterprises in violation of relevant regulations to rectify, and punishes those that violate the law. It has initiated special programs to handle major cases caused by quality issues, taking resolute action against operations involving falsification and violation of regulations. A national platform has been set up for nuclear power plants and research reactors to share experience and information, to effectively ensure the safe operation of nuclear facilities.
全过程开展监督执法。坚持依法严格对核设施和从事核活动的单位进行监督检查,确保符合核安全法规标准和许可要求。对核设施营运单位、核安全设备制造和核技术利用单位开展常态化监督检查,覆盖设计、采购、制造、建造、运行、退役等与核安全有关的全部物项和活动,对重点核设施、核活动开展驻厂安全监督,及时督促违规企业整改,对违法企业依法处罚。开展专项行动,严肃处理重大质量问题,严厉打击违规操作和弄虚作假行为。建设全国统一的核电厂和研究堆经验反馈平台,交流经验、共享信息,有效保障核设施安全运行。
Round-the-clock radiation environment monitoring. China has established a three-tier radiation environment monitoring system at state, provincial and municipal level, and three networks – national radiation environment monitoring, surveillance monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of key nuclear facilities, and nuclear and radiation emergency monitoring – to monitor radiation environment round-the-clock in all areas. As of June 2019, the state radiation environment monitoring network had 1,501 monitoring sites: 167 automatic monitoring sites for atmospheric radiation, 328 land sites, 362 soil sites, 477 inland water sites, 48 seawater sites, 85 electromagnetic radiation sites, and 34 marine life sites. There were also 46 radiation environment surveillance monitoring systems set up in the vicinity of key nuclear facilities as well as sites set up to monitor radioactivity in food.
全天候监测辐射环境。建立国家、省和市三级辐射环境监测体系,建成全国辐射环境质量监测、重点核设施周围辐射环境监督性监测和核与辐射应急监测“三张网”,实现辐射环境全覆盖全天候监控。截至2019年6月,国家级辐射环境监测网络共有1501个监测点,包括167个大气辐射环境自动监测站、328个陆地点、362个土壤点、477个水体点、48个海水点、85个电磁辐射监测点、34个海洋生物监测点,并建立46套重点核设施周围辐射环境监督性监测系统和食品放射性物质监测点。
Improved nuclear and radiation emergency response. China has set up the National Nuclear Accident Emergency Coordination Committee, and formed a three-tier emergency response system at state and provincial level and also at nuclear facility operating organizations, to organize emergency response to nuclear and radiation accidents. The state has established an emergency management system and a response and action mechanism for radiation accidents, and an emergency monitoring and dispatch platform that covers the whole country. All provinces and equivalent administrative units have carried out radiation response drills to enhance their capacity in rapid response and proper action to different types of radiation accidents. China has a 300-member national nuclear emergency rescue team and 25 professional rescue units, 8 types of national nuclear emergency technical support centers, 3 fast support bases for nuclear accidents at nuclear power plants, and 17 medical centers for treating nuclear radiation injuries. Regular joint nuclear emergency drills are carried out to improve preparedness and response.
提升核与辐射事故应急能力。成立国家核事故应急协调委员会,建立国家、省和核设施营运单位三级核应急组织管理体系,组织协调核事故和辐射事故应对。建立健全辐射事故应急管理体系和事故响应与处置机制,建设覆盖全国的应急监测调度平台,督导各省、自治区、直辖市全覆盖开展辐射事故应急实战演练,快速响应、妥善处置各类辐射事故。组建300人的国家核应急救援队和25支专业救援分队,设立8类国家级核应急专业技术支持中心,建立3个核电企业核事故快速支援基地,建有核辐射损伤救治基地17家,定期开展核应急联合演习,提升核事故应急准备和响应能力。
Stronger professional teams. To meet the requirements of the development of the nuclear sector and nuclear safety regulation, China has given top priority to strengthening the professional teams, to develop an "iron army" with strong political convictions, professional capacity, impeccable conduct and a strong sense of responsibility. They will work under pressure, persevere, and dedicate themselves to the cause of nuclear safety. A nuclear and radiation safety regulation team has been formed, consisting of 100 persons at the headquarters, 1,000 persons at the central level, and nearly 10,000 persons nationwide. To cultivate leading figures in nuclear safety, the state has set up a national nuclear safety expert commission composed of 25 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and more than 100 leading experts on nuclear safety. To develop the professional teams, China has enforced qualification management of nuclear safety professionals, strengthened the qualification management of nuclear facility operators, nuclear safety equipment welders, nondestructive testers, and other special posts, and required registered nuclear safety engineers for critical posts. China has established an education and training mechanism involving institutions of higher learning, research institutes, and enterprises, to expand the channels of professional training, strengthen the cultivation of nuclear safety professionals, and enhance their technical competence and safety awareness. As of June 2019, there were 72 universities in China running programs on nuclear engineering, of which 47 had separate schools on nuclear science, enrolling some 3,000 undergraduates in nuclear engineering each year.
不断推进队伍建设。着眼于核事业发展和核安全监管需要,把队伍建设作为百年大计和基础工程,大力培养政治强、本领高、作风硬、敢担当,特别能吃苦、特别能战斗、特别能奉献的核安全“铁军”,逐步形成总部机关百人、中央本级千人、全国近万人的核与辐射安全监管队伍。推进核安全领军人才队伍建设,成立由25位中国科学院和中国工程院院士、100余位行业内权威专家组成的国家核安全专家委员会。加强专业人才队伍建设,推行核安全专业人才资质管理制度,加强核设施操纵人员、核安全设备焊接人员和无损检验人员等特种工艺人员资质管理,对核安全关键岗位实施注册核安全工程师制度。建立健全高等院校、科研机构与企业互联互通的人才教育培训机制,积极拓宽人才培训渠道,加大核安全从业人才培养力度,不断提高核安全专业人才技术能力和安全素养。截至2019年6月,全国开办核工程类专业的大学共72家,其中专门设立核学院的有47家,每年招收核工程类专业本科人数约3000人。
Enhancing R&D in nuclear safety technology. China has included R&D in nuclear safety into national planning for scientific and technological programs, with a focus on work of a strategic nature for basic application and public good. China has established a National Research and Development Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulation, conducted research on key technologies of radiation environment monitoring and technical review, and employed new technology in review and surveillance. The state encourages the nuclear industry to develop and apply advanced and reliable nuclear safety technology. Important results have been achieved in the technological research and demonstration projects on advanced reactors and supporting systems. A proprietary distributed control system (DCS) for nuclear power plants has been applied in the Hualong-1 demonstration project. The pressurized water reactor CAP1400 has made important breakthroughs. Demonstration projects in high temperature gas-cooled and sodium-cooled fast reactors are making headway, and R&D in small reactors for different applications are progressing smoothly. China is using more nuclear power equipment manufactured domestically, and working hard to increase its manufacturing capacity in nuclear power equipment. It has made steady progress to independently produce key equipment of GW-class nuclear power units, achieving key successes in the independent R&D and manufacturing of pressure vessels, steam generators, main pipelines, advanced nuclear fuels, nuclear-grade welding materials, and other key nuclear safety equipment and materials.
大力开展核安全技术研发。将核安全科研列入国家科技计划相关项目,加快推进战略性、基础性、公益性核安全科技研发,建成国家核与辐射安全监管技术研发中心,开展辐射环境监测和技术审评关键技术研究,创新审评监督技术手段。鼓励行业开发和推广应用先进、可靠的核安全技术,先进反应堆及系统的技术研发和示范工程建设取得重要成就,自主研发的核电厂数字化仪控系统首次在“华龙一号”示范工程得到应用,大型先进压水堆CAP1400取得重要科技成果,高温气冷堆、钠冷快堆示范工程顺利推进,小型反应堆在不同应用领域的技术研发进展顺利。持续推动核电装备国产化,不断提升核电装备制造能力,稳步提高百万千瓦级核电机组关键设备自主化、国产化水平,压力容器、蒸汽发生器、主管道、先进核燃料、核级焊材等核安全关键设备和材料的自主研发和国产化取得重大成果,实现自主安全发展。
Full implementation of nuclear safety improvements. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan, the Chinese government organized a nine-month safety inspection of the country's operating nuclear power plants, those under construction, research reactors, and other key nuclear facilities. The result showed a minimal possibility of nuclear accidents, as the sites of China's nuclear facilities had been selected with full consideration of extreme natural disasters such as earthquake, flood, and tsunami. Learning from Japan's lesson, the Chinese government has further enhanced its nuclear facility safety by implementing improvement plans for the short, medium, and long terms and by increasing nuclear facilities' capacity to resist external events and prevent and mitigate serious accidents.
全面实施核安全改进行动。日本福岛核事故发生后,中国政府组织专门力量对全国运行核电厂、在建核电厂、研究堆和其他重要核设施开展了历时9个多月的综合安全检查,结果表明,中国核设施在选址时充分考虑了地震、洪水、海啸等影响,由极端自然事件引发核事故的可能性极小。为进一步提升核设施安全水平,汲取日本福岛核事故教训,中国政府制定并实施了核设施短期、中期、长期安全改进计划,增强了核设施抵御外部事件、预防和缓解严重事故的能力。

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