II. Building a Policy and Legal Framework on Nuclear Safety
China is a leading country in the application of nuclear energy and technologies. Nuclear safety is critical to national security, and the corresponding policies and laws are the cornerstone of nuclear safety. To achieve optimal management of nuclear safety, China employs the highest standards and strictest requirements in shaping the policy and legal framework, implementing a national strategy, making medium- and long-term plans, and improving laws and regulations concerning nuclear safety.
Formulating a national nuclear safety strategy. China treats the development and utilization of nuclear energy as an important strategy to boost economic and social development and build a beautiful China, including it in the country's medium- and long-term plans for national economic and social development. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, and particularly since reform and opening up, China has committed itself to prioritizing nuclear safety and maintaining a balance between safety and development throughout the stages of initial, early, active, and safe and efficient development.
Making medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety. China makes medium- and long-term development plans for nuclear safety every five years under the framework of the Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development. It has released the 12th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2020, and the 13th Five-year Plan for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Prevention and Control and Vision for 2025, analyzing the situation, clarifying guidelines and principles, and defining goal indicators, key tasks and projects, and supportive measures for nuclear safety. These plans have helped to coordinate all efforts to ensure nuclear safety and effectively improved our nuclear safety and regulatory capacity.
Establishing a sound system of laws and industrial standards. China continues to strengthen the formulation of the laws on nuclear safety, under which administrative regulations and departmental rules dovetail with the law, the provisions of laws and regulations and technical standards complement each other, and central and local regulations combine to the best effect. This makes the full regulation of nuclear energy development and utilization possible, laying the foundations for the rule of law in this sector. In June 2003, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution was promulgated; in September 2017, the Nuclear Safety Law of the People's Republic of China was issued. By June 2019, China had enacted nine administrative regulations such as the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Facilities, the Regulations on the Supervision and Administration of Civil Nuclear Safety Equipment, the Regulations on Nuclear Material Control, and the Regulations on Emergency Management of Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants. It had issued over 30 sets of departmental rules and 100 sets of safety guidelines, and formulated over 1,000 national and industry standards related to nuclear safety. Over 200 local regulations have been formulated by China's 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units. To update legal standards and keep abreast with the most advanced international developments, we have reviewed and summarized domestic and overseas experience in nuclear safety, and closely tracked the latest safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency and countries with advanced nuclear technologies.