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2018年美国的人权纪录(6)(中英对照)

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VII. Continuous Tragedies for Immigrants

七、移民悲剧不断上演
The U.S government used slanders and violence against immigrants. Inhumane immigration policies forcibly separated migrant children from their parents. Women and children seeking shelter and asylum were suffering from abuses and sexual assaults. Death incidents of children were appalling. All these practices of the United States drew strong condemnation from the United Nations and the international community.
美国政府污蔑和暴力对待移民,不人道的移民政策强制儿童与父母分离,寻求庇护的妇女、儿童惨遭虐待和性侵,儿童死亡事件令人震惊,受到联合国和国际社会严厉谴责。
Slander and violence against immigrants. The Atlantic website reported on December 12, 2018 that the U.S. government began in 2017 pursuing the deportation of many long-term immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia and other countries, alleging that these immigrants were "violent criminal aliens." The Washington Post reported on November 26, 2018 that the U.S. authorities fired tear gas on multiple occasions at the U.S. border with Mexico to stop immigrants from Central America, causing many injuries.
污蔑和暴力对待移民。《大西洋月刊》网站12月12日报道,美国政府2017年开始将在美国长期生活的越南、柬埔寨等国移民驱逐出境,声称这些移民是“暴力罪犯”。《华盛顿邮报》11月26日报道,美国当局多次在美国与墨西哥边境使用催泪瓦斯,阻止来自中美洲的移民,导致多人受伤。
On November 28, 2018, UN experts including Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, and on the right to non-discrimination in this context, Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders, Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children and Chair of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, jointly issued letters to voice their concerns about the racist and xenophobic languages and practices used by U.S. authorities, which fly in the face of international human rights standards. The letters said that the official response in that country stigmatises migrants and refugees, equating them with crime and epidemics, which also fuels a climate of intolerance, racial hatred and xenophobia against those perceived as non-white, creating hostile emotional environments.
2018年11月28日,联合国人权理事会任意拘留问题工作组主席兼报告员、人权与国际团结问题独立专家、健康权问题特别报告员、住房权问题特别报告员、“人权卫士”问题特别报告员、移民人权问题特别报告员、当代形式种族歧视问题特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、贩运人口问题特别报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席发表联合声明,批评美国政府高层违反国际人权标准、发表种族主义和排外主义言论并采取相关行动,对移民和难民进行污名化,将其视为罪犯和“传染病”,从而助长不容忍、种族仇恨和排外情绪,营造对非白人充满敌意的社会环境等。
Immigration polices separating children from parents. The New York Times website reported on May 12, 2018 that the U.S. government introduced a new "zero tolerance" policy, calling for criminal prosecution of everyone who enters the country illegally, in April. Minor children must be taken from the parents who are in custody in the process. As a result, more than 2,000 migrant children have been separated from their parents. The Guardian website reported on June 16 that according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security figures, a total of 1,995 minors were forcibly separated from their families between 19 April and 31 May 2018 at the U.S. southern border. This policy had drawn waves of strong criticism and protests from the U.S. society and the international community. An article on The Guardian website on June 23 quoted Anne Longfield, the children's commissioner for England, as saying that separating children from their parents is cruel and deeply distressing for them. In some it will cause long-lasting emotional damage. Laura Janner-Klausner, a leading British rabbi, drew a parallel between the policy and historical trends that have led to genocide.
移民政策致使儿童与父母骨肉分离。《纽约时报》网站2018年5月12日报道,美国政府2018年4月开始实施“零容忍”政策,边境执法人员在逮捕非法入境者时,强制将其未成年子女另行安置,导致至少2000名儿童被迫与家人分离。英国《卫报》网站6月16日报道,美国国土安全部的数据显示,4月19日至5月31日期间,共有1995名儿童在美国南部边境被强制离开父母家人。该政策在美国国内及国际社会遭致潮水般的严厉批评与抗议。英国《卫报》网站6月23日报道,英国儿童事务专员安妮·朗菲尔德指出,把孩子和父母分开对他们来说既残忍又痛苦,会造成长期的情感伤害。英国一位犹太教领袖劳拉·詹纳-克劳斯纳将美国这一不人道的政策与种族灭绝相提并论。
Women and children seeking asylum suffered from abuses and sexual assaults. The website of The Independent on May 23, 2018 said there has been a startling increase in the number of instances where US Border Patrol officers have abused children seeking shelter in the United States. It quoted a previous disclosure from the American Civil Liberties Union that detailed 116 incidents where officers were alleged to have physically, sexually, or psychologically abused children between the ages of five and 17. The Texas Tribune website reported on June 20, 2018 that children held at the Shiloh Treatment Center, a government contractor south of Houston that houses immigrant minors, were subdued with powerful psychiatric drugs. The children were forcibly injected with medications that made them dizzy, listless and afraid of people and caused some long-term side effects. According to a report on the American Immigration Council website on August 30, the Atlanta City Detention Center, used by the U.S. authorities to holdindividuals in immigration proceedings, were found to have problems such as unsanitary environment and rampant use of lockdown and isolation (immigrationimpact.com, August 30, 2018).
寻求庇护的妇女、儿童惨遭虐待和性侵。英国《独立报》网站2018年5月23日报道,美国边境执法人员虐待寻求庇护儿童的案件数量惊人增长。有116起虐待寻求庇护儿童的事件被披露,涉事人员被指控对5至17岁的儿童进行身体、性或心理上的虐待。《得克萨斯州论坛报》网站6月20日报道,休斯敦南部的施隆收容所被指控强迫移民儿童服用精神控制药物,导致儿童头痛、情绪低落、敏感紧张、恐惧等。美国移民委员会网站8月30日报道,亚特兰大移民拘留中心卫生条件糟糕,被拘留的移民经常受到“关禁闭”和“单独囚禁”等惩罚。(注44)
The New York Times website reported on November 12, 2018 that Esteban Manzanares, a Border Patrol agent in Texas, driven three women, including two teenagers, who crossed border to seek shelter, to an isolated, wooded area 16 miles outside the border city. There he sexually assaulted one girl and viciously attacked two others and left them, finally, to bleed in the brush. The report said that over the past four years, at least 10 people in South Texas have been victims of murder, kidnapping or rape by Border Patrol agents. According to a report by the CNN on December 26, 2018, Jakelin Caal Maquin, a 7-year-old girl from Guatemala, died December 8 in the custody of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, fewer than 48 hours after CBP detained her. Another 8-year-old Guatemalan boy, Felipe Alonzo-Gomez, died late Christmas Eve in the agency's custody.
《纽约时报》网站11月12日报道,得克萨斯州边境巡逻队的执法人员埃斯特班·曼扎纳雷遇到3名寻求庇护的女性移民,其中有2名未成年人。他将3人驱赶到距边境16英里的一个树林,在那里性侵了一名女孩,毒打了另外两人,之后把流血不止的她们扔在了灌木丛中。检方提供的信息显示,得克萨斯州南部过去4年至少有10人被边境执法人员绑架、强奸或谋杀。美国有线电视新闻网12月26日报道,7岁的危地马拉女孩杰奎琳·卡奥12月8日在被美国海关及边境保卫局拘留后不到48小时死亡。12月24日平安夜,又一名8岁的危地马拉男孩费利佩·阿隆佐-戈麦斯在该机构监管下死亡。
Strong condemnation of the U.S. immigration policies from UN institutions. A report of the UN Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity, submitted in accordance with Human Rights Council resolution 35/3, criticized the populism and the racist and xenophobic languages to describe immigrants used by the U.S. administration as well as practices to separate children from their parents. It said these practices had imperiled the immigrants' human rights, including their rights to life, dignity and liberty (UN document A/73/206). A report by The Guardian website on June 5, 2018 quoted Ravina Shamdasani, a UN human rights official, as saying that "the use of immigration detention and family separation as a deterrent [against illegal immigration] runs counter to human rights standards and principles. The US should immediately halt this practice." She noted that the United States was the only country in the world not to have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. She called on the United States to fully respect children's rights.
联合国机构严厉谴责美国移民政策。2018年6月2日,联合国人权与国际团结问题独立专家依照联合国人权理事会第35/3号决议提交报告指出,美国政府奉行民粹主义,使用带有种族主义和仇外色彩的措辞污蔑和诋毁移民,并将儿童与其寻求庇护的父母强行分开,上述行径严重危及移民的生命权、尊严和自由权等多项人权。(注45)英国《卫报》网站6月5日报道,联合国人权官员拉维娜·沙姆达尼称:“将拘留和强制拆散家庭作为威慑非正常入境人员的手段,违反了人权标准和原则。美国应立即停止拆散家庭的做法。”她呼吁美国作为全世界唯一未批准《儿童权利公约》的国家应充分尊重儿童权利。
On June 22, 2018, a group of UN experts, including Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities, Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, Special Rapporteur on the right to health, Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Chair-Rapporteur of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Chairperson of the Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, Special Rapporteur on violence against women and Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, jointly issued a statement saying that forcibly separating thousands of migrant children from their parents and holding them in detention violated international human rights standards. It said detention of children is punitive, severely hampers their development, and in some cases may amount to torture. "Children are being used as a deterrent to irregular migration, which is unacceptable."
2018年6月22日,联合国人权理事会移民人权问题特别报告员、土著人权利问题特别报告员、残疾人权利问题特别报告员、贩卖和性剥削儿童问题特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、健康权问题特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组副主席、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席、当代形式种族歧视问题特别报告员、贩运人口问题特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组主席兼报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组主席、打击针对妇女暴力问题特别报告员、当代种族歧视问题特别报告员发表联合声明,称美国政府强制将数千名移民儿童与父母分离并羁押,违反国际人权标准。针对儿童的惩罚性措施严重影响其发展,在某些情况下可能构成酷刑。利用儿童来阻止非正常移民是不可接受的。
VIII. Unilateralism is Losing Ground
八、单边主义不得人心
The United States shirked international responsibilities, carried out the unilateralist America First policies unscrupulously, repeatedly withdrew from international organizations, bullied the weak, and caused human rights disasters in its overseas military operations, and became a "trouble maker" that the international community widely condemned.
美国推卸国际责任,肆无忌惮地推行“美国优先”的单边主义政策,不断上演“退群”戏码,恃强凌弱,海外军事行动导致人权灾难,成为国际社会普遍谴责的“麻烦制造者”。
Withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council. After withdrawing from international treaties such as the Paris Climate Agreement and international organizations including the UNESCO, the United States brazenly announced its withdrawal from the UN Human Rights Council on June 19, 2018. Just a day earlier, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights criticized the United States for forcibly separating children from their parents after they crossed the border into the U.S. According to a report released by The Atlantic on June 20, 2018, human rights expert said that one of Trump's most likely, and most insidious, arguments for the move was to prevent the United States from being called out on its own alleged human-rights abuses.
退出联合国人权理事会。继退出应对气候变化的《巴黎协定》等国际条约和联合国教科文组织等国际组织后,2018年6月19日,美国悍然宣布退出联合国人权理事会。此前一天,联合国人权事务高级专员办公室刚刚抨击了美国在边境地区将移民儿童与父母强制分离的做法。《大西洋月刊》网站2018年6月20日报道,人权专家称美国此举最阴险的意图是为了防止自身受到侵犯人权的指控。
Reduction of humanitarian aid. The State Department announced on August 31 that the United States would no longer contribute to the United Nations relief agency for Palestinian refugees, and threatened to cancel the assistance programs to Palestine worth over 200 million U.S. dollars in the West Bank and Gaza, aggravating the already serious humanitarian situation in the area (www.washingtonpost.com, August 31, 2018; edition.cnn.com, August 31, 2018).
减少人道主义援助。美国政府8月31日宣布将停止向联合国巴勒斯坦难民救济机构提供援助,并威胁要取消美国在约旦河西岸和加沙地带向巴勒斯坦方面提供的超过2亿美元援助项目。此举将加剧本已严峻的人道主义局势。(注46)
Refusal to close Guantanamo military prison. Despite years of strong condemnation and appeal from the international community, the United States decided to break its promise and keep the notorious Guantanamo military prison in Cuba open. Most of the prisoners were without trial (www.aljazeera.com, February 1, 2018). Los Angeles Times reported on its website on July 26, 2018 that a Pakistani, mistaken for an extremist, was imprisoned and tortured in Guantanamo for as long as 14 years without trial, resulting in serious physical and mental damage.
拒不关闭关塔那摩监狱。美国不顾多年来国际社会的强烈谴责和呼吁,违背承诺继续运行臭名昭著的关塔那摩监狱。大部分被关押在关塔那摩监狱的人都未经审判。(注47)《洛杉矶时报》网站2018年7月26日报道,一名被误认为是极端主义分子的巴基斯坦人,未经审判被关押在关塔那摩监狱长达14年之久,屡遭酷刑折磨,身体和精神遭受严重损害。
Civilian casualties as result of overseas military operations. According to a CNN report on April 14, 2018, the United States and its allies, without concrete evidence or UN Security Council authorization, launched a strike on Syria in the name of striking Syrian chemical weapon facilities. The Guardian reported on November 28 that at least 30 Afghan civilians, including women and 16 children, were killed in U.S. air strikes in the Afghan province of Helmand. The United Nations said the number of civilian casualties from air strikes in the first nine months of 2018 was already higher than in any entire year since at least 2009 (www.theguardian.com, November 28, 2018; www.latimes.com, November 30, 2018).
海外军事行动造成平民伤亡。美国有线电视新闻网2018年4月14日报道,美国联合盟友在没有确凿证据且未经联合国安理会授权的情况下,以打击叙利亚政府化学武器设施之名对叙利亚发动空袭。英国《卫报》网站11月28日报道,美国在阿富汗赫尔曼德省发动空袭,造成至少30名平民死亡,死者中有妇女和16名儿童。根据联合国统计数据,2018年前9个月美国在阿富汗的空袭造成的平民伤亡人数已经超过2009年以来的任何一年。(注48)
Associated Press reported on November 14, 2018 that the United States had been engaged in a drone war in Yemen for 16 years, causing a large number of civilian casualties. At least 30 civilians were killed in a drone strike in 2018. Statistics showed that the United States had launched 176 drone strikes in 2017 and 2018, leading to 205 deaths. CNN reported on December 16, 2018 that a war-torn Yemen was in the midst of mass famine and cholera outbreak, with more than 22 million people requiring humanitarian assistance and protection. An estimated 85,000 children under the age of 5 in Yemen may have died from starvation and disease. Chris Murphy, a U.S. senator, said "US is enabling war that has made Yemen a hell on earth for civilians." "There is a US imprint on each of these civilian deaths."
美联社2018年11月14日报道,美国在也门发动的无人机战争已有16年,造成大量平民伤亡。仅在2018年的一次无人机袭击中,至少有30名死者是平民。统计显示,2017年和2018年美国已经进行了176次无人机袭击,死亡人数则高达205人。美国有线电视新闻网12月16日报道,战乱中的也门爆发大规模饥荒和霍乱,超过2200万人需要人道主义援助,约8.5万名5岁以下幼童因饥饿和疾病等原因死亡。美参议员克里斯·墨菲评论说,“美国支持发动的战争使也门成为人间地狱”,“每个平民的死亡都有美国的印记”。

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