2018年美国的人权纪录(5)(中英对照)_英汉翻译素材 - 可可英语

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2018年美国的人权纪录(5)(中英对照)

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V. Children Face Worrisome Safety Problems

五、儿童安全令人担忧
The high incidence of school shootings, widespread school violence and lack of effective government oversight of children abuse has posed a threat to American children both physically and mentally and their living environment is worrisome.
美国校园枪击案高发,校园暴力广泛存在,政府对侵犯、虐待儿童的行为监管不力,儿童人身安全、身心健康和生存环境令人担忧。
School shootings frequently occurred. According to a BBC report on December 12, 2018, the year of 2018 has had the highest number of incidents ever recorded, in figures going back to 1970, and has been the worst year for deaths and injuries. Data from the U.S. Center for Homeland Defense and Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency showed that there were 94 gun incidents in U.S. schools in 2018, with 163 casualties, compared with a previous high of 97 in 1986. On February 14, 2018, 19-year-old Nikolas Cruz, equipped with a gun and multiple magazines of ammunition, opened fire at a Florida high school, killing 17 people and injuring at least 14. Cruz had pulled the fire alarm and then started shooting with the semi-automatic weapon at students who came pouring out of the classrooms (www.usatoday.com, February 14, 2018). According to a report by Pew Research Center on April 18, 2018, 57 percent of teens surveyed said they were worried about the possibility of a shooting happening at their school, while 63 percent of parents of teenagers said they were at least somewhat worried about the possibility of a shooting happening at their child's school.
校园枪击案频发。英国广播大富豪彩票注册网2018年12月12日报道,2018年是自1970年有记录以来美国校园枪击事件发生数量最多的年份,也是造成伤亡最严重的一年。根据美国国土防御和安全中心以及联邦紧急事务管理局发布的数据,2018年已发生94起校园枪击案,共有163人伤亡,超过了1986年创下的伤亡97人的最高纪录。2018年2月14日,19岁的尼古拉斯·克鲁兹携枪支和多个弹匣,进入佛罗里达州的一所高中并拉响火灾警报,趁大量学生跑出教室时,用半自动步枪扫射,造成17人死亡、至少14人受伤。(注34)皮尤研究中心网站4月18日报道,57%的青少年受访者表示担心学校可能发生枪击事件,63%的父母受访者表示担心孩子所在学校可能发生枪击事件。
The problem of school violence is prominent. Violent incidents in U.S. schools increased 113 percent during the past 2017-2018 school year. According to a survey based on responses from more than 160,000 secondary students in 27 states, nearly 40 percent of middle-schoolers said they'd been bullied while 27 percent of high-schoolers said the same (www.usatoday.com, August 14 and September 24, 2018). American School & University reported on December 10, 2018 that more than 600 schools in Florida failed to report crimes that took place on campus to the state each year.
校园暴力问题凸显。2017-2018学年,美国校园暴力事件数量比上一学年增长了113%。针对27个州超过16万名中学生的调查显示,近40%的初中生和27%的高中生受访者表示曾经遭受校园欺凌。(注35)《美国学校与大学杂志》网站12月10日报道,佛罗里达州超过600所学校未按法律要求向州政府报告校园内发生的违法犯罪行为。
Children suffer from serious threats of abuse. According to statistics from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 4 children in America experienced maltreatment at some point in their lives (www.usatoday.com, July 26, 2018). Texas Tribune reported on December 6, 2018, hundreds of children were abused and 88 died of abuse and neglect in Texas day care facilities in the last decade. According to a report by The Guardian on December 18, 2018, an education center in Canton, Massachusetts, routinely inflicted high-powered electric shocks as a form of punishment on students, with individuals being zapped with electric currents far more powerful than those discharged by stun guns. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights issued a rare formal notice known as "precautionary measures" that calls for immediate cessation of the electric shocks.
儿童受虐状况严重。根据美国疾病预防与控制中心的统计,四分之一的美国儿童遭受过虐待。(注36)《得克萨斯州论坛报》网站2018年12月6日报道,过去十年中,得克萨斯州多家托儿所的数百名儿童受到虐待,其中88名儿童死亡。英国《卫报》网站12月18日报道,位于马萨诸塞州坎顿市的一所教育中心经常使用高功率电击惩罚学生,一些人承受的电流强度远超过电击枪释放的电流。美洲人权委员会罕见地发出正式通知,要求该机构立即停止实施电击“酷刑”。
Children fall victims to priest sexual abuse. According to a CBS report on August 15, 2018, more than 300 Catholic priests in Pennsylvania committed sexual abuse against a large number of children over a period of decades, with more than 1,000 victims, while senior church officials took steps to cover it up. A report from Attorney General in Illinois showed that 690 Catholic priests were suspected of sexual abuse against children in the state (www.chicagotribune.com, December 19, 2018). According to a report by Star-Telegram on December 9, 2018, more than one hundred clergies from fundamental Baptist churches spanning 40 U.S. states were accused of committing sexual crimes against children.
神职人员实施性虐待。美国哥伦比亚广播公司网站2018年8月15日报道,宾夕法尼亚州300多名天主教牧师在过去几十年间对大量儿童实施性虐待,受害者超过1000人。相关教会高层一直设法掩盖真相。伊利诺伊州检察长发布的报告显示,该州天主教会有690名神职人员涉嫌性侵儿童。(注37)《福特沃兹-星电讯报》12月9日报道,分布在美国40个州的原教旨浸会教教堂的百余位神职人员,被指控对儿童实施性犯罪。
The U.S. government neglected the protection of children's rights. According to a report by Chicago Tribune on July 13, 2018, in some states, the adoption system lacks transparency and issues such as the living conditions of adopted children and reports of child abuse have been ignored for years. The lack of effective oversight by the federal and state governments has led to frequent incidents of abuse or murder of adopted children. On November 28, 2018, the Miami Herald published a lengthy investigative report on multimillionaire Jeffrey Epstein's underage girl sex trafficking based on a review of court filings. Between 2001 and 2005, Epstein allegedly abducted and trafficked underage girls from other countries and forced them to provide sexual services to his bigwig friends, with more than 80 victims. Federal prosecutors forged a plea deal with Epstein to sentence him to 13 months in prison on only one count and end investigation into potential co-conspirators in the case. The report said some senior government official had helped broker the deal for such light conviction.
政府疏于对儿童权利的保护。《芝加哥论坛报》网站2018年7月13日报道,在一些州政府的强制收养系统中,儿童领养过程缺乏透明度,多年来一直存在忽视被收养儿童生存环境等问题,对很多虐待收养儿童的报告视而不见。联邦政府和州政府缺乏有效监督,导致被收养儿童受虐或被害事件时有发生。11月28日,《迈阿密先驱报》基于对法院卷宗的梳理发表关于大富豪爱泼斯坦进行未成年少女性交易的长篇调查报道。2001年至2005年,爱泼斯坦涉嫌拐卖他国未成年少女为其权贵朋友提供性服务,被害人超过80人。联邦检察官与其达成认罪交易,仅以一项罪名判其服刑13个月,并不再调查涉案权贵客户名单。报道指有政府高官帮助促成了这一极轻量刑的交易。
Children are suffering from poverty. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, more than 13 million children – about one in six – in the United States live in families with inconsistent access to food. These children can experience hunger on a regular basis. According to figures released by U.S. Census Bureau, 20.2 percent of American children under 5-years-old live in poverty (www.usatoday.com, October 1 and October 10, 2018).
儿童贫困现象严重。美国农业部发布的数据显示,约六分之一的美国儿童生活在食物缺乏稳定保障的家庭中,经常忍饥挨饿,人数超过1300万。美国人口普查局的统计数据显示,有20.2%的5岁以下儿童生活在贫困中。(注38)
VI. Shocking Gender Discrimination
六、性别歧视触目惊心
The U.S. women faced severe threat in terms of sexual harassment and sexual assault, with personal safety in lack of protection. They also face obvious discrimination of employment and in workplace.
美国女性遭受性骚扰和性侵犯的严重威胁,人身安全缺乏保障,面临明显的就业和职场歧视。
High occurrence rate of sexual harassment and assault. As reported by National Public Radio on February 21, 2018, an online survey found that 81 percent of women had experienced some form of sexual harassment during their lifetime. It also found that 51 percent had been sexually touched without their permission, and 27 percent said they had survived sexual assault (www.npr.org, February 21, 2018). As reported by Des Moines Register on October 14, 2018, about two-dozen Iowa legislators and staff members were involved in the Anderson case of sexual harassment. Being afraid of losing job or retaliation, the victims had to remain silent for over 10 years.
性骚扰和性侵犯频发。美国国家公共电台2018年2月21日报道,根据在线调查,81%的女性受访者表示在一生中经历过某种形式的性骚扰,51%的女性受访者表示曾经遭到身体骚扰,27%的女性受访者表示曾遭受性侵犯。(注39)《得梅因纪事报》10月14日报道,艾奥瓦州大约24名议员或议会工作人员卷入到安德森性骚扰案件中。受害人由于担心失业或报复,10余年来不得不保持沉默。
The state government paid a settlement of 1.75 million U.S. dollars. As reported by USA Today on September 26, sexual harassment and assault have become a systemic issue in Hollywood. According to an industry-wide survey, 94 percent of the surveyed women would have experienced some form of harassment or abuse during their career. As reported by Gallup on November 12, a U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report found that 18.3 percent of women were the victims of rape at some point in their lifetime. The report also found that the percentage of the U.S. women who say they worry about being a victim of sexual assault has edged up to 36 percent, the highest this figure has been since 2011 (news.gallup.com, November 12, 2018).
该州政府因此案赔偿了175万美元。《今日美国报》9月26日报道,性骚扰、性侵犯在好莱坞已经成为系统性问题。根据对全行业的调查,94%的受访女性表示在职业生涯中经历过某种形式的性骚扰或性侵犯。盖洛普咨询公司网站11月12日报道,美国疾病控制与预防中心发布的报告显示,全国18.3%的女性有过被强奸的经历。担心自己遭受性侵害的美国女性比例已上升至36%,创2011年以来的最高水平。(注40)
Women under violent offending. Research by the U.S. National Institute of Justice showed that over four in five American Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence in their lifetime, and more than half of them have experienced sexual violence. As reported by Huffington Post on November 14, 2018, 5,712 cases of missing Native women nationwide were reported to the U.S. National Crime Information Center in 2016 alone. As reported by Los Angeles Times on October 8, 2018, between 2006 and 2014, more than 5,000 women were shot and killed by a current or former intimate partner.
女性遭受暴力侵犯。美国国家司法研究所的研究显示,超过五分之四的印第安人和阿拉斯加原住民女性在一生中经历过暴力,其中超过一半的女性经历过性暴力。《赫芬顿邮报》网站2018年11月14日报道,国家犯罪信息中心仅2016年就收到5712例有关原住民妇女失踪的案件报告。《洛杉矶时报》网站10月8日报道,2006年至2014年间,美国5000多名女性被现任或前亲密伴侣枪杀。
Significant wage gap between men and women. According to date from the U.S. Census Bureau, the average gender pay gap in the United States is around 19.5 percent, and a woman earns only 80.5 percent of the wage a man earns (www.businessinsider.com, August 27, 2018). The gender wage gap was even worse than the statistics. In the long term, women made slightly less than half of men's incoming. Among full-time, year-round workers, women with associate's degrees were paid less than men with just a high school diploma, and women with master's degrees were paid less than men with bachelor's degrees. A gender-based wage gap continues to harm women and their families (www.huffingtonpost.com, November 28, 2018; www.nationalpartnership.org, April and September, 2018).
男女薪酬差距显著。根据美国人口普查局的数据,美国平均性别工资差距约为19.5%,女性平均收入仅为男性的80.5%。(注41)男女收入实际差距比统计数据还要大。长期来看,女性收入比男性的一半还要略低。在全职工作者中,拥有准学士学位的女性薪酬低于仅拥有高中文凭的男性,拥有硕士学位的女性薪酬低于拥有学士学位的男性。基于性别的工资差距一直在危害女性及其家庭。(注42)
Prevalent discrimination in workplace. According to a report by San Francisco Chronicle on December 21, 2018, discrimination against pregnant women and new mothers remains widespread in the U.S. workplace. Half of women working in science, technology, engineering or math jobs have experienced gender discrimination in the workplace. About 70 percent of women said that there were too few women in political and business leadership positions (www.pewsocialtrends.org, January 9 and September 20, 2018).
职场歧视普遍存在。《旧金山纪事报》网站2018年12月21日报道,美国职场对孕妇和哺乳期女性的歧视普遍存在。在科学技术领域工作的女性中,有50%的受访者表示在工作中经历过性别歧视。约70%的女性受访者表示,在政界和商界担任高层领导职位的女性太少。(注43)
Upsurge of women's discontent sentiment about their social positions. The Gallup website reported on January 10, 2018, that 46 percent of women in the United States said they were very or somewhat dissatisfied with their position in society, up from 30 percent in 2008, when Gallup last asked the question. As reported by The New York Times on January 20, 2018, millions attended the Women's March 2018 to show intense protest against the government's policies.
女性对社会地位的不满情绪高涨。盖洛普咨询公司网站2018年1月10日报道,46%的女性受访者对自己的社会地位表示不满或非常不满,这一比例在2008年的调查中为30%。《纽约时报》网站2018年1月20日报道,数百万人参加“2018女性游行”,对现任政府政策表示强烈抗议。

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